ACR Crisis Negotiation Section Books

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Note, the listing of books below is just for your information.  We do not endorse or suggest one book over another.

Crisis Negotiators Field Guide

Crisis Negotiators Field Guide was compiled and published to provide the trained law enforcement and corrections negotiators with a quick reference to refresh previous training on the guiding principles used at the scene of a crisis incident. The material contained in this guide is based partly on the training and experiences of its author, Mike Goergen, as both a practicing crisis negotiator and as an instructor of negotiations. A majority of the books principles and guidelines were developed and advanced by the Federal Bureau of Investigation through its Crisis Negotiation Unit, part of the Critical Incident Response Group in Quantico, Virginia. A new 2nd edition includes three new topics added to the field guide: Incident Assessment Checklist, Kidnap Negotiations, and a Tactical Action Guide. Additions were also made to Active Listening Skills and Correctional Setting Negotiations.

Bibliography

 

A

Abbott, T.E. 1986. Time-Phase Model for Hostage Negotiation. Police Chief. April, p.34-35.

 

Alexander, A.J. 1985. An Economic Analysis of Security, Recovery, and Compensation in Terrorist Kidnappings. In Terrorism and Personal Protection. Jenkins, B.M., ed. Stoneham, MA: Butterworth, p.176-199.

 

Alexander, Y. 1982. Terrorism as a Sociopolitical Phenomenon. International Journal of Group Tensions. 12:1-4, p.41-61.

 

American Psychiatric Association. 1983. Ethical Dimensions of Psychiatric Intervention in Terrorist and Hostage Situations: A Report. In Terrorism: Interdisciplinary Perspectives. Eichelman, B.; Soskis, D.A.; Reid, W., eds. Washington, DC: American Psychiatric Association, p.181-186.

 

Andrew, R.J. 1980. The Siege at Princess Gate: Attack on the Iranian Embassy. In Terrorism and Beyond: An International Conference on Terrorism and Low-Level Conflict. Jenkins, B.M., ed. Santa Monica, CA: Rand Corporation, p.243-246.

 

Annin, P. 1985. Hostages: Living in the Aftermath. U.S. News and World Report. July, p.34.

 

Aston, C.C. 1980. Restrictions Encountered in Responding to Terrorist Sieges - An Analysis. In Responding to the

 

Terrorist Threat. Shultz, R.H., Jr. and Sloan, S., eds. Elmsford, NY: Pergamon Press, Inc., p.59-92.

 

Aston, C.C. 1981. Hostage-Taking - A Conceptual Overview. In Contemporary Terror - Studies in Sub-State Violence. Carlton, D. and Schaerf, C., eds. New York, NY: St. Martin's Press, p.75-89.

 

Aston, C.C. 1982. A Contemporary Crisis: Political Hostage-taking and the Experience of Western Europe. Westport, CT: Greenwood Press.

 

Avery, J.K. 1978. The Terrorist Siege/Hostage Situation: Negotiation or Confrontation? Australian Police College Journal. 4, p.3-16.

 

B

Bahn, C. 1980. Hostage Taking - The Takers, The Taken, and The Context: Discussion. In Forensic Psychology and Psychiatry. Wright, F.; Bahn, C.; Rieber, R.W., eds. New York, NY: New York Academy of Sciences, p.151-156.

 

Bard, M. 1978. Hostage Negotiations, Part 1 and 2. New York, NY: Harper and Row. (Film)

 

Beal, M.D. 1976. Hostage Negotiations. Military Police Law Enforcement Journal. 3:3, p.30-37.

 

Beal, M.D. 1978. Hostage Negotiations. In Contemporary Terrorism. Elliott, J.D. and Gibson, L.K. eds. Gaithersburg, MD: IACP, p.223-232.

 

Behavioral Science: Its Potential in the War Against Terrorism. TVI Journal. 1981. 2:1, p.6-10.

 

Bell, J.B. 1982. Psychology of Leaders of Terrorist Groups. International Journal of Group Tensions. 12:1-4, p.84-104.

 

Belz, M., et al. 1977. Is There a Treatment for Terror? Psychology Today. 11 (October), p.54-56, 108-112.

 

Ben Eli, T.; Sela, M. 1980. Terrorist in Nahariya: Description of Coping Under Stress. Israel Journal of Psychology and Counselling in Education. 13 (September), p.94-101.

 

Bennett, J.P.; Saaty, T.L. 1979. Terrorism: Patterns for Negotiation: A Case Study Using Hierarchies and Holarchies. In Terrorism: Threat, Reality and Response. Kupperman, R.H. and Trent, D.M., eds. Stanford, CA: Hoover Institution Press, p.244-285.

 

Betz, J. 1982. Moral Considerations Concerning the Police Response to Hostage Takers. In Ethics, Public Policy, and Criminal Justice. Elliston, F. and Bowie, N., eds. Boston, MA: Oelgeschlager, Gunn and Hain, Publishers, Inc., p.110-132.

 

Biggs, J.R. 1987. Defusing Hostage Situations. Police Chief. May, p.33-34.

 

Bollinger, L. 1985. Terrorist Conduct as a Result of a Psychological Process. In Psychiatry: The State of the Art, Vol.6. New York, NY: Plenum, p.387-390.

 

Bolz, F.A. 1979. Hostage Confrontation and Rescue. In Terrorism: Threat, Reality and Response. Kupperman, R.H. and Trent, D.M., eds. Stanford, CA: Hoover Institution Press, p.393-404.

 

Bolz, F.A.; Hershey, E. 1980. Hostage Cop: The Story of the New York City Police Hostage Negotiating Team and the Man Who Leads It. New York, NY: Rawson, Wade.

 

Bolz, F.A. 1982. Hostage Negotiations - When Every Word Counts. In Law Enforcement Bible, Number 2. Scanlon, R.A., ed. South Hackensack, NJ: Stoeger Publishing Co., p.116-125.

 

Bolz, F.A. 1983. The Hostage Situation: Law Enforcement Options. In Terrorism: Interdisciplinary Perspectives. Eichelman, B.; Soskis, D. and Reid, W., eds. Washington, DC: American Psychiatric Association, p.99-116.

 

Bolz, F.A. 1987. How to be a Hostage and Live. Secaucus, NJ: L. Stuart.

 

Bracey, D.H. 1980. Forensic Psychology and Hostage Negotiation: Introductory Remarks. Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences. 347, p.109-111.

 

C

Campbell, H.E. 1984. The Corporation as Hostage. Security Management. August, p.84-87.

 

Capotorto, G. 1985. Further thoughts on Negotiations. In Terrorism and Personal Protection. Jenkins, B.M., ed. Stoneham, MA: Butterworth, p.291-292.

 

Carlson, E.R. 1977. Hostage Negotiation Situations. Law and Order. 25:7, p.12-15, 59-60.

 

Carlson, K. 1986. One American Must Die: A Hostage's Personal Account of the Hijacking of Flight 847. Chicago, IL: Contemporary Books.

 

Cassidy, W.L. 1978. Shanghai Experiments - Historical Origins of the Special Weapons and Tactics Concept.Police Journal. 51:1, p.45-51.

 

Charters, D. 1980. Swift and Bold: An Appraisal of Hostage Rescue Operations. Conflict Quarterly. 1:1, p.26-33.

 

Chaze, W.L., et al. 1985. We Want...Justice Done. U.S. News and World Report. October, p.24-27.

 

Clutterbuck, R.L. International Terrorism - Hostage Negotiation/ Media (Reels 18, 19, 20). Philadelphia, PA: Center for Study of Human Behavior. (n.d.)

 

Clutterbuck, R.L. 1978. Kidnap and Ransom: The Response. London: Faber and Faber.

 

Clutterbuck, R.L. 1981. Management of the Kidnapp Risk. Terrorism. 5:1-2, .125-138.

 

Clutterbuck, R.L. 1985. Managing the Episode. In Terrorism and Personal Protection. Jenkins, B.M., ed. Stoneham, MA: Butterworth, p.232-249.

 

Clutterbuck, R.L. 1985. Negotiations I: Negotiations with Kidnappers. In Terrorism and Personal Protection. Jenkins, B.M., ed. Stoneham, MA: Butterworth, p.250-261.

 

Codd, M.J. 1977. Police Management of Terrorist Caused Crisis - A Metropolitan Perspective. In Research Strategies for the Study of International Political Terrorism - Final Report. Crelinsten, R.D., ed. College Park, MD: University of Maryland Institute of Criminal Justice and Criminology. See NCJ-63590.

 

Conley, J.M. 1981. Kidnapping and Police Response. Law Enforcement Communications. December, p.14.

 

Cooper, H.H.A. 1976. The Terrorist and the Victim. Victimology. 1 (Summer), p.229-239.

 

Cooper, H.H.A. 1977. Hostage Negotiations - Options and Alternatives. In Clandestine Tactics and Technology, Vol.2. Gaithersburg, MD: IACP.

 

Cooper, H.H.A. 1977. What is a Terrorist: A Psychological Perspective. Legal Medical Quarterly. 1:1, p.16-32.

 

Cooper, H.H.A. 1978. Close Encounters of an Unpleasant Kind: Preliminary Thoughts on the Stockholm Syndrome. Legal Medical Quarterly. 2:2, p.100-114.

 

Cooper, H.H.A. 1978. Hostage Rescue Operations - Denouement at Algeria and Mogadishu Compared. Chitty's Law Journal. Downsview, Ontario: Jonah Publications Limited. 26:3, p.91-104.

 

Cooper, H.H.A. 1978. Psychopath as Terrorist. Legal Medical Quarterly. 2, p.253-262.

 

Cooper, H.H.A. 1979. Kidnapping - How to Avoid It, How to Survive It. In Clandestine Tactics and Technology, Vol.5. Gaithersburg, MD: IACP.

 

Cooper, H.H.A. 1981. Hostage-takers. Boulder, CO: Paladin Press.

 

Cooper, H.H.A. 1985. Hostage Rights - Law and Practice in Throes of Evolution. Journal of International Law. 15:1, p.61-125.

 

Copley, G. 1978. A Sociological Profile of Terrorism. Defence and Foreign Affairs Digest. 4, p.38-39.

 

Corrado, R.R. 1981. A Critique of the Mental Disorder Perspective of Political Terrorism. International Journal of Law and Psychiatry. 4:3-4, p.293-309.

 

Corsi, J.R. 1981. Terrorism as a Desperate Game - Fear, Bargaining, and Communication in the Terrorist Event. Journal of Conflict Resolution. 25:1, p.47-85.

 

Cramer, C.; Harris, S. 1982. Hostage. London: John Clare Books.

 

Crelinsten, R.D.; Szabo, D. 1979. Hostage-Taking. Lexington, MA: Lexington Books.

 

Crelinsten, R.D. 1979. Terrorist Victimization: The Interface Between Research and Policy. In Hostage Taking. Crelinsten, R.D. and Szabo, D., eds. Lexington, MA: Heath- Lexington Books, p.127-148.

 

Crews, W. 1982. Thirty-two Hours. Law and Order. October, p.28-31.

 

Cullinane, M.J. 1978. Terrorism - A New Era of Criminality. Terrorism. 1:2, p.119-124.

 

D

Daly, L.N. 1981. Terrorism - What Can The Psychiatrist Do? Journal of Forensic Sciences. 26:1, p.116-122.

 

Damos, J.P.; Goldaber, I.; Cooper, H.H.A. 1978. Terrorism: Hostage Negotiations. Police Yearbook 1978. p.133-145.

 

Danto, B.L. 1982. Use of Actors in Training Hostage Negotiators. Police Chief. April, p.56-57.

 

Davidson, G.P. 1981. Anxiety and Authority: Psychological Aspects for Police in Hostage Negotiation Situations. Journal of Police Science and Administration. 9:1, p.35-38.

 

Davis, R.C. 1987. Three Prudent Considerations for Hostage Negotiators. Law and Order. September, p.54-57.

 

Dean, B. 1977. Organizational Response to Terrorist Victimization: A Case Study of the Hanafi Hostage-taking. In Final Report on the Dimensions of Victimization in the Context of Terrorist Acts. Crelinsten, R.D., ed. Montreal: International Centre for Comparative Criminology, p.119-127.

 

DeSarno, J.V.; Wesselius, C.L. 1983. The Anatomy of a Hostage Situation. Behavioral Sciences and the Law. p.33-45.

 

Dolan, J.T.; Fuselier, G.D. 1989. A Guide for First Responders to Hostage Situations. FBI Law Enforcement Bulletin. April, p.9-13.

 

E 

Ebert, B.W. 1986. The Mental Health Response Team. Police Chief. April, p.36-37.

 

Ebert, B.W. 1986. The Mental Health Response Team: An Expanding Role for Psychologists. Professional Psychology: Research and Practice. 17:6, p.580-585.

 

Eichelmann, B.; Hartwig, A.C. 1983. Ethical and Consultation Issues in the Behavioral Sciences and Terrorism. Behavioral Sciences and the Law. 1:2, p.9-18.

 

Eichelmann, B. 1983. Ethics in Hostage Encounters. In Terrorism: Interdisciplinary Perspectives. Eichelman, B.; Soskis, D.A.; Reid, W., eds. Washington, DC: American Psychiatric Association, p.49-64.

 

Eichelmann, B. 1983. The Victim. In Terrorism: Interdisciplinary Perspectives. Washington, DC: American Psychiatric Association.

 

Eichelmann, B.; Soskis, D.A.; Reid, W.H. 1983. Terrorism: Interdisciplinary Perspectives. Washington, DC: American Psychiatric Association.

 

Eitinger, L. 1982. The Effects of Captivity. In Victims of Terrorism. Ochberg, F.M. and Soskis, D.A., eds. Boulder, CO: Westview Press, p.73-94.

 

Elam, J. Personality Profiles of Successful Hostage Negotiators. Oklahoma: Department of Public Safety, Highway Patrol (n.d.).

 

Elshtain, J.B. 1985. Reflections on the Stockholm Syndrome. Christianity and Crisis. September, p.354-356.

 

Ex-Hostage to Sue Police Officers Who Saved Her Life. Crime Control Digest. January 1985, p.8-9.

 

F

FBI Hostage Squad Makes Its Debut. Law Enforcement News. April 1984, p.7.

 

Fenyvesi, C. 1977. Living with a Fearful Memory: Effects of Washington, D.C. Siege by Hanafi Muslims.Psychology Today. 11 (October), p.61, 115-116.

 

Ferracuti, F. 1982. A Sociopsychiatric Interpretation of Terrorism. Annals of the American Academy of Political and Social Science. 463, p.129-141.

 

Fields, R.M. 1982. Research on the Victims of Terrorism. In Victims of Terrorism. Ochberg, F.M. and Soskis, D.A., eds. Boulder, CO: Westsview Press, p.137-148.

 

Fields, R.M. 1984. Psychological Sequelae of Terrorization. In Behavioral and Quantitative Perspectives on Terrorism. Alexander, Y. and Gleason, J.M., eds. New York, NY: Pergamon Press.

 

Fly, C. 1973. No Hope But God. New York, NY: Hawthorne.

 

Ford, C.V.; Spaulding, R.C. 1973. The Pueblo Incident - A Comparison of Factors Related to Coping With Extreme Stress. Arch Gen Psychiatry. 29 (September), p.340-343.

 

Fowler, R.; DeVivo, P.P.; Fowler, D.J. 1985. Analyzing Police Hostage Negotiations: The Verbal Interactional Analysis Technique. Emotional First Aid: A Journal of Crisis Intervention. 2:2, p.16-28.

 

Fowler, R.; Hall, W.H. 1986. Crisis Care Analysis: Barricade. Emotional First Aid: A Journal of Crisis Intervention. 3:2, p.47-49.

 

Freedman, L.Z. 1983. Why Does Terrorism Terrorize. Terrorism. 6:3, p.389-402.

 

Freedman, L.Z.; Alexander, Y. 1983. Perspectives on Terrorism. Wilmington, DE: Scholarly Resources.

 

Friedland, N. 1983. Hostage Negotiations. Dilemmas About Policy. In Perspectives on Terrorism. Freedman, L.Z. and Alexander, Y., eds. Wilmington, DE: Scholarly Resources Inc., p.201-212.

 

Friedland, N. 1986. Hostage Negotiations. Types, Resources, Outcomes. Negotiation Journal. 2:1, p.57-72.

 

Friedlander, R.A. 1983. The Psychology of Terrorism: Contemporary Views. In Managing Terrorism. Montana, P.J. and Roukis, G.S., eds. Westport, CT: Quorum Books, p.41-54.

 

Froman, L.; Glorioso, J. 1984. Applying Communications Theory to Hostage Negotiations. Police Chief. 51:5, p.59-60.

 

Fuselier, G.D. 1981. A Practical Overview of Hostage Negotiations, Part 1 and 2. FBI Law Enforcement Bulletin. 50:6, p.2-6; 50:7, p.10-15.

 

Fuselier, G.D. 1986. What Every Negotiator Would Like His Chief to Know. FBI Law Enforcement Bulletin. 56:3, p.13-15.

 

Fuselier, G.D. 1988. Hostage Negotiation Consultant - Emerging Role for the Clinical Psychologist.Professional Psychology-Research and Practice. 19:2, p.175-179.

 

Fuselier, G.D. Van Zandt, C.R.; Lanceley, F.J. 1989. The Oakdale and Atlanta Prison Sieges. FBI Law Enforcement Bulletin. July, p.1-7.

 

G

Galvin, D.M. 1983. The Female Terrorist: A Socio-Psychological Perspective. Behavioral Sciences and the Law. 1:2, p.19-32.

 

Gelbart, M. 1979. Psychological, Personality, and Biographical Variables Related to Success as a Hostage Negotiator. Dissertation Abstracts International. 39 (9-B), p.4558-B.

 

Gettinger, S. 1983. Hostage Negotiators Bring Them Out Alive. Police Magazine. 6:1, p.10-28.

 

Gilmartin, K.M.; Gibson, R.J. 1985. Hostage Negotiation - The Bio-Behavioral Dimension. Police Chief. 52:6, p.46-48.

 

Gist, R.M., et al. 1985. Conclusion: Mental Health Dispositions. FBI Law Enforcement Bulletin. December, p.10-12.

 

Gist, R.M., et al. 1985. Perspectives on Negotiation in Local Jurisdictions--Part 1: A Different Typology of Situations. FBI Law Enforcement Bulletin. November, p.21-24.

 

Gist, R.M.; Perry, J.D. 1985. Perspectives on Negotiation in Local Jurisdictions--Part 2: Negotiation Strategies for Escalated Situations. FBI Law Enforcement Bulletin. December, p.5-9.

 

Gladis, S.D. 1979. Hostage/Terrorist Situation and the Media. FBI Law Enforcement Bulletin. 48:9, p.10-15.

 

Goldaber, I. 1979. Typology of Hostage-takers. Police Chief. 46:6, p.21-23.

 

Goldaber, J., et al. 1979. Hostage Survival. Assets Protection. 4:4, p.15-24.

 

Greenstone, J. L.

 

Gunn, Jr. 1983. The Psychiatrist and the Terrorist. In Terrorism: Interdisciplinary Perspectives. Eichelman, B.; Soskis, D.A.; Reid, W., eds. Washington, DC: American Psychiatric Association, p.31-48.

 

H

Hacker, F.J. 1982. A Case Study of Hostage Negotiation. In Diplomats and Terrorists. Herz, M.F., ed. Washington, DC: Institute for the Study of Diplomacy, p.1-5.

 

Hansen, K.A. 1988. A Successful Composition of SWAT/Hostage Teams for Medium to Small Cities. Police Chief. February, p.32-33.

 

Hargrave, G.E.; Kohls, J.W. 1984. Psychological Screening of Peace Officers: A Clinical-Industrial Psychological Process. Police Chief. January, p.25-29.

 

Harris, R.C.; Hautzinger, J.R. 1979. Hostage Negotiation - The Ultimate Game. Royal Canadian Mounted Police Gazette. 41:9, p.8-13.

 

Hassell, C.V. 1982. Interactions of Law Enforcement and Behavioral Science Personnel. In Victims of Terrorism. Ochberg, F.M. and Soskis, D.A., eds. Boulder, CO: Westview Press, p.165-172.

 

Hatcher, C. Psychologists' Role in Hostage Negotiation. San Francisco, CA: University of California (n.d.).

 

Head, W.B. 1987. Hostage Response: An Examination of U.S. Law Enforcement Practices Concerning Hostage Incidents. Doctoral dissertation, State University of New York at Albany. National Institute of Justice, reference number 109853.

 

Herz, M.F. 1982. Diplomats and Terrorists - What Works, What Doesn't - A Symposium. Herz, M.F., ed. Washington DC: Institute for the Study of Diplomacy.

 

Hibler, N.S. 1984. Forensic Hypnosis: To Hypnotize or Not to Hypnotize, That is the Question! American Journal of Clinical Hypnosis. 27, p.52-57.

 

Higgins, D. 1988. When Tactical Responses are Necessary. Police Chief. February, p.42-44.

 

Hillman, R.G. 1983. The Psychopathology of Being Held Hostage. In Perspectives on Terrorism. Freedman, L.Z. and Alexander Y., eds. Wilmington, DE: Scholarly Resources, p.157-168.

 

Hillmann, M.; Hansen, K.A.; Barreto, R.R.; Wetherington, W.J.; Higgins, D.; Palmer, W.P.; Walker, R.D. 1988. Special Focus: SWAT (Special Weapons and Tactics) Teams and Tactics. Police Chief. 55:2, p.18-46.

 

Horn, J.C. 1985. The Hostage Ward. Psychology Today. July, p.9.

 

Horobin, A. 1978. Hostage Taking - Coping with a Crisis. Police Review. 87 (September 29), p.1438-1440.

 

House, A. 1975. The Carrasco Tragedy. Waco, TX: Texian Press.

 

Howard, G.; Smith, E. 1979. Hostage Negotiations, Part 3 - Response to Non-negotiable Hostage Situations. New York, NY: Harper and Row. (Film)

 

Hubbard, D.G. 1982. A Glimmer of Hope: A Psychiatric Perspective. In International Terrorism and Political Crimes. Bassiouni, C.M., ed. Springfield, IL: C.C. Thomas, p.27-32.

 

I

International Association of Chiefs of Police. 1976. Hostage-Incident Response - Training Key Number 234. InClandestine Tactics and Technology - A Technical and Background Intelligence Data Service, Volume 2. Gaithersburg, MD: IACP, see NCJ-77150.

 

International Association of Chiefs of Police. 1976. Hostage Negotiation - Training Key Number 235. Gaithersburg, MD: IACP.

 

International Association of Chiefs of Police. 1981. Hostage Incidents - Tactical Considerations - Training Key Number 315. Gaithersburg, MD: IACP Bureau of Operations and Research.

 

International Association of Chiefs of Police. 1984. Emergency Management - Special Focus. Police Chief. 51:5, p.32-60.

 

International Association of Chiefs of Police. 1988. Tactical Intelligence Operations and Support During a Major Barricade/Hostage Event. Police Chief. February, p.18-22.

 

Inwald, R.E.; Shusman, E.J. 1984. The IPI and MMPI as Predictors of Academy Performance for Police Recruits. Journal of Police Science and Administration. 12, p.1-11.

 

J

Jackson, G. 1974. Surviving the Long Night. New York, NY: Vanguard Press.

 

Jacobs, J. 1983. SWAT (Special Weapons and Tactics) Tactics. Boulder, CO: Paladin Press.

 

Janus, S.S.; Bess, B.E.; Cadden, J.J.; Greenwall, H. 1980. Training Police Officers to Distinguish Mental Illness. American Journal of Psychology. No vol. P.228-229.

 

Jenkins, B.M. 1982. Some Simple Principles Based on Experience. In Diplomats and Terrorists. Herz, M.F., ed. Washington, DC: Institute for the Study of Diplomacy, p.48-54.

 

Jenkins, B.M. 1982. Talking to Terrorists. Rockville, MD: National Institute of Justice/National Criminal Justice Reference Service Microfiche Program, Report No.: P-6750.

 

Jenkins, B.M. 1985. Reentry. In Terrorism and Personal Protection. Jenkins, B.M., ed. Stoneham, MA: Butterworth, p.426-434.

 

Jenkins, B.M. 1985. Talking to Terrorists. In Terrorism and Personal Protection. Jenkins, B.M., ed. Stoneham, MA: Butterworth, p.302-313.

 

Jenkins, B.M. 1985. Terrorism and Personal Protection. Boston, MA: Butterworth.

 

Jenkins, B.M. 1985. The Payment of Ransom. In Terrorism and Personal Protection. Jenkins, B.M., ed. Stoneham, MA: Butterworth, p.222-231.

 

Jenkins, B.M.; Wright, R. 1987. Why Taking Hostages is a Winning Terror Tactic. Washington Post. July 17.

 

Johnson, E.E. 1983. Psychological Tests Used in Assessing a Sample of Police and Firefighter Candidates.Journal of Police Science and Administration. 11, p.430-433.

 

Johnson, T.A. 1978. Role of the Behavioral Scientist in Hostage Negotiation Incidents. Journal of Forensic Sciences. 23:4, p.797-803.

 

K

Kaplan, A. 1981. The Psychodynamics of Terrorism. In Behavioral and Quantitative Perspectives on Terrorism. Alexander, Y. And Gleason, J.M., eds. New York, NY: Pergamon Press, p.35-50.

 

Kemp, R.L.; Gilmartin, K.M.; Gibson, R.J.; Hertig, C.A.; Lanter, R.E.; Adams, R.G. 1985. Emergency Management - Special Focus. Police Chief. 52:6, p.42-43, 46-53.

 

Kennish, J.W. 1986. Extortion by Kidnapping. Security Management. January, p.50-55.

 

Kobetz, R.W.; Cooper, H.H.A. 1979. Hostage Rescue Operations - Teaching the Unteachable. Police Chief. 46:6, p.24-27.

 

Kolman, J.A. 1982. Guide to the Development of Special Weapons and Tactics Teams. Springfield, IL: Charles C. Thomas.

 

Kuleshnyk, I. 1984. The Stockholm Syndrome: Toward an Understanding. Social Action and the Law. 10:2, p.37-42.

 

L

Loo, R. 1986. Police Psychology: The Emergency of a New Field. Police Chief. February, p.26-30.

 

Lanceley, F.J. 1981. Antisocial Personality as a Hostage-taker. Journal of Police Science and Administration. 9:1, p.28-34.

 

Leary, E.R. 1980. An Evaluation of the FBI's Hostage Negotiation Training Program. Ph.D. dissertation: George Mason University.

 

Lesce, T. 1983. Stun Grenades-Uses and Tactics. Law and Order. October, p.26-32.

 

Lindsey, R. 1985. 1984 World's Fair Under Siege: A Realistic Training Exercise. Law and Order. April, p.49-52.

 

M

Maher, G.F. 1976. Organizing a Team for Hostage Negotiations. Police Chief. 43:6, p.61-62.

 

Maher, G.F. 1977. Hostage: A Police Approach to a Contemporary Crisis. Springfield, IL: Charles C. Thomas.

 

Maksymchuk, A.F. 1982. Strategies for Hostage-Taking Incidents. Police Chief. 49:4, p.58-65.

 

Manning R.A.; Emerson, S. 1986. Special Forces: Can They Do The Job? U.S. News and World Report. November, p.36-42.

 

Margolin, J. 1977. Psychological Perspectives in Terrorism. In Terrorism: Interdisciplinary Perspectives. Alexander, Y. And Finger, S.M., eds. New York, NY: John Jay Press, p.270-282.

 

McGeorge, H.J. 1983. Plan Carefully, Rehearse Throughly, Execute Violently: The Tactical Response to Hostage Situations. World Affairs. 146:1, p.59-68.

 

McInturff, H.E.; Band, S.R. 1985. The Complete Investigator: Recognizing the Potential for Suicide and Violence. FBI Law Enforcement Bulletin. September, p.18-20.

 

McKenzie, G. 1974. The Mind of the Terrorist. Indianapolis, IN: Bobbs-Merrill.

 

McKenzie, I.K. 1981. Hostage-Captor Relationships. Bulletin of the British Psychological Society. 34, p.161-163.

 

McKenzie, I.K. 1984. Hostage-Captor Relationships - Some Behavioral and Environmental Determinants.Police Studies. 7:4, p.219-223.

 

McKenzie, I.K. 1987. Physiological and Psychological Effects of Kidnapping and Hostage-Taking. Police Studies. 10:2, p.96-102.

 

McKinnon, D. 1986. Everything You Need to Know Before You're Hijacked. San Diego, CA: House of Hits.

 

McMains, M.; Mullins, W. 1996. Crisis Negotiations. Cincinnati,OH: Anderson Publishing Co.

 

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Mills, M.C.; Stratton, J.G. 1982. MMPI (Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory) and the Prediction of Job Performance. FBI Law Enforcement Bulletin. 51, p.10-15.

 

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Miron, M.S.; Douglas, J.E. 1979. Threat Analysis: The Psycholinguistic Approach. FBI Law Enforcement Bulletin. 48:9, p.5-9.

 

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